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About Schelkovo

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About Schelkovo city of Moscow region

 

Hello dear freind, we tell you about us Schelkovo city. Modern city Schyolkovo located on the lands of ancient villages Schyolkovo, Hotovo, Shelohovo and villages: Khomutovo, Amerevo, Zhegalovo, Sobolevka and hamlet Turabevo. The history of each of them has a lot of memorable pages, but the most ancient of them - Turabevo, it is mentioned in chronicles in 1472.

Schelkovo - is not a capital of Moscow region, but it very big part and economicaly efficient region. Welcome!

The first information about Schyolkovo relate to 1521-22 years. Schyolkovo belonged IF Khomutov and his legacy passed the Trinity-Sergius Lavra. In 1584 the village Schyolkovo is among the one of the 46 villages that made up the village Grebnevo owned associate of Ivan the Terrible okolnichy BJ Belsky, came from tribal nobility. Schyolkovo had then 32 acres of land, of which only handles 12 acres.

schelkovo lenin monument

In the XVII and XVIII centuries, there was a process of strengthening the settlements and population concentration. In the middle of the XVIII century the village was Grebnevo network of villages: Schyolkovo, Friazino Chizhov, New, Trubino, Nazimiha, and Sloboda village Toporkovo. In them, there were 220 households, inhabited by 1,269 people (including 622 men). Needless Grebnevo while had peasant households. Decree 1769 allowed farmers to engage in commercial activities. December 8 of that year, 15 Grebnevskiye serfs, the first in Russia, received in manufactories-board right to produce "different silk fabrics and scarves." So appeared in Russia is one of the earliest and largest nests of silk weaving handicrafts. Among the 15 grebnevtsev granted the right to engage in the production of silk fabrics, 12 were from Schyolkovo. The village has 27 households, inhabited by 153 people (79 men), there was a 33 silk-weaving mill. In 1797, it was already in Schyolkovo 8 peasant silk-weaving establishments which had 100 mills and the same number of workers (among them 98 - civilian). At the end of the XVIII century and the District Schyolkovo focused 63% of the provincial peasant industrial production, 71% - of the county. But were Schelkovskogo edge not only peasant enterprise. The village Fryanovo (first mentioned in the cadastres of the XVI century) functioned possessional schelkotkatskaya noble manufactory, which were occupied by hundreds of workers. Industrial production in Schyolkovo and district on the volume of production in value terms clearly predominates over agricultural. For the population of many villages industrial labor became the main source of livelihood.

At the beginning of the XIX century, in face of the deteriorating Russian-French relations, peasant silk-weaving industry, receive raw materials from France and Italy, is in decline. But after the defeat of the French again gaining strength. Handicraft commercial institution MK Kondrashov, founded by one of the three brothers Kondratyevs and translated into Schyolkovo in 1784, becoming in fact the factory. Manufactory Kondrasheva called first-class in the silk industry, and Schelkovskogo district compared with the center of the French silk industry - Lyons District. In 1827 and 1829 the factory products honored with gold medals in 1835 - a large gold medal manufactory, and in 1841 - Medal of the Warsaw manufactory exhibition.

schelkovo urban

In 1832, a Prussian citizen, a native of the city of Elberfeld, Ludwig Rabenek bought from landowner Durnovos part hamlet in the bend of the Sobolev p. Klyaz'ma (on the right), and a year later founded here, with the permission of the tsarist government, the first in Russia dyeing facility. When sons Rabenek it grew and became one of the largest in the province. Now it is widely known Schelkovskogo cotton mill named after MI Kalinin. In the coming decades after its founding, the company with the neighborhood Rabenek organically merged with Schyolkovo.

In the 30s of the XIX century in the same Sobolev closer to Schyolkovo, EF Kenemanom was founded large cloth factory. At the same time increased significantly silk-weaving factory Bogorodsky merchant NI Laptev, occupies a small plot of land free from. Chomutov. In the 30's in the village. Schyolkovo arise large silk-weaving enterprise merchants IJ Vesnina and AP Kryukov. In 1843, there were seven working for them 2846 people. Thus, in the village. Schyolkovo and its immediate surroundings (within a radius of no more than 2 km) workers was greater than in Podolsk, Kolomenskoye and Zvenigorod district. Near case kondrashovskoy factory on the right bank began to appear Klyaz'ma trade shops, workshops, shoemakers, tailors, houses. In 1846, very close to the same right bank Klyaz'ma but downstream IV Four-built factory buildings, which has translated his Moscow cloth factory. This fact accelerated the settlement of the right bank Klyaz'ma. Here, near the village. Schyolkovo appeared settlement. The official name of the settlement have not been. In the documents it occurs as a Philistine settlement, just Schyolkovo, Schyolkovo Posad, a village Schyolkovo, Schyolkovo Oseyevsky Parish (unlike d. Schyolkovo, located in the parish of the same Grebnevskiye Bogorodsky County).

History of Schyolkovo

In 1859 there were 40 Meshchanskaya settlement houses and 317 inhabitants. Changes began to occur in the organizational system of enterprises. Factory Rabenek brothers in 1879 was reorganized on the basis of company law - emerged Ludwig Rabenek Association of Manufactures (the grandson of the founder of the factory was given the name of the partnership's uncle). Factory Polyakov was also reorganized in 1894 and became known as the Fellowship of aperture dyeing factory in the village. Schyolkovo (now known factory of technical fabrics). The extensive development of the industry demands more to transport. At the end of the XIX century was commissioned Schelkovskaya branch of the Northern Railway. In connection with the construction of the railway Alexandra Ivanova became unprofitable contain Stromynsky road from Aniskina continue for one Fryanovskoy factory. In 1897 the canal was built Novohomutovsky Fryanovo-Nazimiha-Grebnevo-Sloboda-Aniskina with access to Stromynsky road.

Schyolkovo after the victory of Soviet power became the administrative center that united former parish Bogorodsky County - Oseyevsky, Grebnevskiye, Ivanovo and Aksenovskuyu. Schyolkovo made major advances in the cultural construction, the number of students grew rapidly. The district had 36 schools, staffed by 113 teachers and students learned to 4082. 3 thousand were registered. Illiterates. Adult open 8 schools, which occupy 450 people. Continues to operate the former Commercial School, then reorganized the school II-nd stage, special industrial and economic course - if it was prepared accountants, statisticians, registrars, clerks counting. Was open peat College.

schelkovo museum

In 1921 (the decision of the Moscow City Council of 9 December) created Schelkovskaya parish composed Oseyevsky Grebnevskiye and townships as part of the Moscow district. At the same time the northern part Shchyolkovsky District still remained a part of Bogorodsky County. Decree of the Moscow District Council of Workers, Peasants' and Red Army Deputies from May 21, 1923 Schyolkovo was given the status of urban settlement. And finally, August 17, 1925 settlement Schyolkovo was categorized cities. The structure of the city were included Pravoberezhnoe Schyolkovo (former Philistine settlement), part of the village with Schyolkovo Aperture dyeing factory, Sobolev and part of the village with Khomutovo weaving factories.

In January 1929 as part of the Moscow region was formed Shchyolkovsky District centered in Schyolkovo. August 12, 1954 Schyolkovo became a town of regional subordination. Since that time, the city started to develop intensively change its appearance, and today Schyolkovo - the center of one of the largest districts in the suburbs.

At the end of the civil war Shchyolkovsky District, being almost 4 times larger in area and number of inhabitants than the regular parish, in the legal, financial, budgetary, economic relations are at a position parish. This causes complications in the management. Decree of the Moscow District Council of Workers, Peasants' and Red Army Deputies from May 21, 1923 Schyolkovo was given the status of urban settlement. September 1, 1923 in the parish Shchelkovo including 71 town, 3,880 yards and 33 441 inhabitants, the village Schyolkovo - 203 yard and 9944 inhabitants, d. Schyolkovo - 130 yards and 594 inhabitants. August 17, 1925 Schyolkovo village was classified as urban. The structure of the city were included Pravoberezhnoe Schyolkovo (before the revolution Meschanskaya Sloboda), part d. Schyolkovo with dyeing factory Aperture, Sobolev and part of the village with Khomutovo weaving factories.

Since the early days of World War II the city workers stood on Schyolkovo combat watch. The city formed a fighter battalion and a battalion of the national militia, which joined in the 3rd Regiment of the 4th Division of the Moscow People's Militia Kuibyshev district. The division also participated in the Battle schlkovtsy by Bohr, in the battle for Vereya and Vyazma, in the liberation of Belorussia, in the storming of Koenigsberg and Pillai. Many residents of the district for Schelkovskogo displayed in WWII heroism and courage were awarded government awards. The title of Hero of the Soviet Union awarded AG Dudkina, II Ivanov BV Mihalev, PT Muzhetskomu, NN Tyavkinu and PI Tsyganov.

Currently Schelkovo - the center of one of the largest industrial areas in the suburbs. Material and technical base of health, education and culture, and takes steps to improve conditions of work and recreation for the citizens of the city, the further development of physical culture and sports. Increased material well-being of inhabitants, increasing the scale of the social and cultural construction. Much work on building and reconstruction of the city. The older generation remembers schlkovtsev your city has one storey. Now Schyolkovo - modern comfortable city.

In Schelkovo we have many monuments, we proud: Lenin, Pushkin, solders what dead at Second World War. In Schelkovo placed many ortodox churchs.

 

 

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